The summit resulted in an agreement adopted by the parties to the states, which called for a large “Green Climate Fund” as well as a “climate technology centre and network”. It expects a second commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol. The agreement also notes that the fight against climate change requires a paradigm shift towards building a low-carbon society. The agreement recognises that climate change poses an urgent and potentially irreversible threat to human societies and planets, and that there is an urgent need for all parties to address. It reaffirms that climate change is one of the main challenges of our time and that all parties must share a vision of long-term cooperative action in order to achieve the objective of the Convention, including the achievement of a global goal. It recognizes that global warming is scientifically verified and that most of the increase in global average temperatures observed since the mid-twentieth century is most likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations, as the IPCC indicates in its Fourth Progress Report. Other commentators spoke of a positive spirit of negotiation and paving the way for an agreement in Cancun.  The New York Times described the deal as both a “big step forward,” with international negotiations having stumbled in recent years, and “quite modest,” because it did not require the changes that scientists deem necessary to avoid dangerous climate change.  John Vidal criticised in The Guardian that the Cancun agreements do not play a leadership role, did not specify how to finance the proposed climate fund and that they did not say that countries should “peak” their emissions within ten years and that they should reduce them quickly in order to have a chance of avoiding warming. The postponement of decisions on the legal form and level of emission reductions required was also criticised.  Professor Kevin Anderson described the Cancun agreement as “astrology” and said science suggested an increase in global average temperature of 4°C, possibly as early as the 2060s.  The agreement calls on rich countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, as promised in the Copenhagen Accord, and on developing countries to reduce their emissions. .